Getting to the ‘Bottom’ of a Kiwi Query

On Language

By Philologos

Published June 24, 2009, issue of July 03, 2009.
  • Print
  • Share Share

This column’s first letter from New Zealand is surely cause for celebration. It comes from Daniel Meyrowitz of Auckland, who writes:

“I have an inquiry about what I assume to be a Yiddish word, ‘unterdetzura’ or ‘interdeshira.’ I gather from the context in conversation that it means something like the English idiom ‘the long and the short of it,’ but am not sure. I have not been able to find it in Uriel Weinreich’s Yiddish dictionary and would love to know its exact meaning and pronunciation.”

What Mr. Meyrowitz assumes to be a word is actually the three Yiddish words di untershte shure. (Untershte is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable, and shure as “SHOO-reh,” although in the Southern regions of Yiddish-speaking Eastern Europe, this became “SHEE-reh.”) While they do indeed mean something very much like English’s “the long and short of it,” there is another contemporary English idiom that comes even closer, since it appears to be a literal translation of them — namely, “the bottom line.”

But is “the bottom line” a translation of di untershte shure, or are we dealing with two identical expressions that developed independently?

It would not be terribly surprising, after all, for them to have done so. Whether di untershte shure, or “the bottom line,” originally referred to the last line of a contract on which the signatures of the agreeing parties appear, or to that of a ledger or a balance sheet in which the final sum is stated, the expression, as a metaphor for the ultimate result of something, is an obvious one. There is no reason that it could not have occurred to both Yiddish and English speakers with no connection between them.

And yet, the historical record, to the extent that one exists, suggests that this was not the case. Di untershte shure is an old Yiddish idiom. True, despite its rabbinic sound — shurah is Hebrew for “a row or line of text,” and contract law plays a prominent role in rabbinic discourse — there is no known rabbinic source for it; yet it goes at least as far back as the early 20th century. Although I have not been able to find a Yiddish citation of it from this period, a Hebrew dictionary quotes the Russian-Hebrew author Uri Nissan Gnessin, who died in 1913, as writing in an essay, “The bottom line is that we have to change the values we live by.” Undoubtedly, Gnessin, a native Yiddish speaker, borrowed the expression from Yiddish.

“The bottom line” in English, on the other hand, is more recent. My own personal impression is that it did not come into widespread use in America until the 1960s, which is borne out by the dictionaries in my possession. Not found in my 1961 Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary or my 1966 Random House Dictionary of the English Language, “the bottom line” first occurs in my 1969 American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Since these were precisely the years in which American Jews were entering the mainstream of American life in just about every area, and in which numerous Yiddish words and expressions entered American life along with them, it is logical to assume that “the bottom line” was one of these. I would tend to agree, therefore, with the Yiddish folk-saying anthologist Shirley Kumove, who writes about it:

“Certain expressions frequently heard in English are pure Yiddish translations, for instance: what’s doing? [vos tut zikh?]; talk to the wall! [red tsu der vant!]; on one foot [oyf eyn fus]; don’t ask! [freg nisht!]; I should worry! [zol ikh zorgn!]; I need it like a hole in the head! [ikh darf es vi a lokh in kop!; it should happen to me! [oyf mir gezogt gevorn!]; break one’s head [brekhn zikh dem kop]; take a look! [gib a kuk!]…. A popular expression, especially in business circles, is ‘the bottom line,’ a straight translation from Yiddish — di untershte shure.

And yet, Kumove should have been a bit more cautious. Although most of her examples strike me as justified, a few clearly are not. “Take a look” is a very old English idiom that has nothing to do with Yiddish gib a kuk (had 20th-century Americans started to say “Give a look,” that would be a different matter), and “Was tut sich?” is perfectly good German, too. Unlike individual words, whose movement from language to language is generally easy to trace, expressions can be extremely tricky. The odder they are, of course, the less question there tends to be about their provenance (“I need it like a hole in the head” hardly could have originated anywhere but in Yiddish), but one generally should avoid jumping to conclusions without at least some historical documentation. In the case of “the bottom line,” there may not be a great deal of it, but there is enough, I think, to lead us back to di untershte shure with some confidence.

Questions for Philologos can be sent to philologos@forward.com.


The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.





Find us on Facebook!
  • "Woody Allen should have quit while he was ahead." Ezra Glinter's review of "Magic in the Moonlight": http://jd.fo/f4Q1Q
  • Jon Stewart responds to his critics: “Look, obviously there are many strong opinions on this. But just merely mentioning Israel or questioning in any way the effectiveness or humanity of Israel’s policies is not the same thing as being pro-Hamas.”
  • "My bat mitzvah party took place in our living room. There were only a few Jewish kids there, and only one from my Sunday school class. She sat in the corner, wearing the right clothes, asking her mom when they could go." The latest in our Promised Lands series — what state should we visit next?
  • Former Israeli National Security Advisor Yaakov Amidror: “A cease-fire will mean that anytime Hamas wants to fight it can. Occupation of Gaza will bring longer-term quiet, but the price will be very high.” What do you think?
  • Should couples sign a pre-pregnancy contract, outlining how caring for the infant will be equally divided between the two parties involved? Just think of it as a ketubah for expectant parents:
  • Many #Israelis can't make it to bomb shelters in time. One of them is Amos Oz.
  • According to Israeli professor Mordechai Kedar, “the only thing that can deter terrorists, like those who kidnapped the children and killed them, is the knowledge that their sister or their mother will be raped."
  • Why does ultra-Orthodox group Agudath Israel of America receive its largest donation from the majority owners of Walmart? Find out here: http://jd.fo/q4XfI
  • Woody Allen on the situation in #Gaza: It's “a terrible, tragic thing. Innocent lives are lost left and right, and it’s a horrible situation that eventually has to right itself.”
  • "Mark your calendars: It was on Sunday, July 20, that the momentum turned against Israel." J.J. Goldberg's latest analysis on Israel's ground operation in Gaza:
  • What do you think?
  • "To everyone who is reading this article and saying, “Yes, but… Hamas,” I would ask you to just stop with the “buts.” Take a single moment and allow yourself to feel this tremendous loss. Lay down your arms and grieve for the children of Gaza."
  • Professor Dan Markel, 41 years old, was found shot and killed in his Tallahassee home on Friday. Jay Michaelson can't explain the death, just grieve for it.
  • Employees complained that the food they received to end the daily fast during the holy month of Ramadan was not enough (no non-kosher food is allowed in the plant). The next day, they were dismissed.
  • Why are peace activists getting beat up in Tel Aviv? http://jd.fo/s4YsG
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?




















We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.