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At the height of the Tarzan craze, a pulp fiction industry boomed in the Holy Land. Several publishers, most notably Karnaf, (Hebrew for “rhinoceros”), competed for young Tarzan readers, putting out hundreds of 24- and 32-page editions, and often suing each other over copyrights — which was “probably a sore point” for Tarzan’s creator, according to Tarzan fan publication ERBzine editor and Burroughs historian Bill Hillman. “Probably none of the Israeli Tarzan publications were authorized by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc.,” he told the Forward. “Although he took many countries to task, I’m not aware of a conflict with Palestine/Israel.”
Other Israeli writers who contributed to the ape-man’s mythos included Aharon Amir and Amos Kenan, who were better known for more serious literary work but supplemented their incomes churning out Tarzan stories for the pulps. Many of them were associated with the Canaanites, an edgy Israeli cultural movement whose aesthetic embraced the pre-monotheistic Israel of the biblical past. The Canaanites’ most controversial expression was a statue called “Nimrod,” a carved stone figure of a brawny, naked uncircumcised hunter. According to Eshed, Tarzan could have influenced the controversial work, created by sculptor Yitzhak Danziger and unveiled at Hebrew University in 1939 (it is now displayed at The Israel Museum, Jerusalem).
Fittingly, though Zionists adopted Tarzan, the character was officially banned by the Nazis, who were unhappy that Burroughs, in his 1919 story, “Tarzan the Untamed” (aka “Tarzan and the Huns”), portrayed Germans as stereotypical villains. According to Hillman, Burroughs was no fan of Hitler, either. “He used biting satire in his Venus novels of the ’30s to discredit Hitler and the Nazis… and their promotion of a ‘master race,’ eugenics and their doctrines of exterminating Jews and other European minorities,” Hillman wrote in an email to the Forward.
Following the Jewish state’s founding, in 1948, some of the Hebrew Tarzan stories enlisted the ape-man in the service of the Israeli government as well as in the pre-state Yishuv. In one story, he helped Jews immigrate to Palestine illegally during the mandatory period, for which he was arrested and imprisoned by his fellow Britishers. Another adventure had Tarzan running the Egyptian blockade at Suez, wreaking havoc among the Egyptian soldiers; defying Egypt’s president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and destroying Soviet troops poised to overrun Israel. On yet another mission, Tarzan teamed with Mossad agents in Moscow to trap a Nazi war criminal.
While Tarzan was helping Zionists, he also found fans in Arab countries. One writer of Tarzan stories was Rabki Camal, the Syrian radio announcer, known as the “Voice of Damascus,” for the an anti-Israel propaganda program broadcast in Hebrew. In Camal’s stories, which were published in Arabic pulps, “Tarzan helps the Palestinians fight the evil Jews and their attempt to achieve world domination,” Eshed explained. “Needless to say, this also was all without the knowledge of the Burroughs estate.”
Tarzan’s popularity has declined in Israel from its peak in the 1950s and ’60s, with land and nature bypassed for high-tech frontiers, and global culture displacing old heroes. “Tarzan does not really speak to children who prefer anime and Japanese comics and such,” Eshed said.
But in one respect, Burroughs’s classic stories are gaining a fresh perspective for their 100th anniversary. For the first time since Tarzan saved Jane Porter, a white woman from Baltimore, from jungle perils in “Tarzan of the Apes,” an officially authorized Tarzan novel has been written by a woman. “Jane: The Woman Who Loved Tarzan,” by Robin Maxwell, a Jewish author of historical novels, tells the Tarzan story from the point of view of his famous mate. The book will be released this fall as the centerpiece of centennial activities organized by the Edgar Rice Burroughs Estate. Primate researcher Jane Goodall has supplied a glowing blurb, stating that the story is “finally an honest portrayal of the only woman of whom I have been really, really jealous.”
Porter, a Darwinian scientist in the first Tarzan story, speculated that the ape-man was evolution’s “missing link.” If we hear a slight Hebrew accent in his blood-curdling cry, that might be because Tarzan is also a missing link to a more innocent time in Israel’s history and a reminder that a nation’s malleable folklore can be derived from unlikely sources — a comic book, a Hollywood movie, or just a writer scribbling to make a living.
Rex Weiner is the Forward’s West Coast correspondent.