Rebels With a Cause

Images of the Holocaust Influenced California Radicals

I Am Not a Radical: Mario Savio, leader of the Free Speech Movement, saw the civil rights movement as a way to respond to injustices such as the Holocaust.
Peter Whitney/Getty images
I Am Not a Radical: Mario Savio, leader of the Free Speech Movement, saw the civil rights movement as a way to respond to injustices such as the Holocaust.

By Sheerly Avni

Published September 16, 2012, issue of September 21, 2012.
  • Print
  • Share Share
  • Single Page

(page 2 of 2)

“I tried to rely as much as possible on the FBI’s own records and on official documents,” he says, stressing the importance of objectivity. “And then I spoke to people on all sides of the conflict.” He even corrects me when I refer to the passion that must have sustained his quest over the past few decades; describing it instead as “curiosity.”

Besides Hoover and Reagan, whom Rosenfeld never had the chance to interview — Reagan’s press people instead referred him to Ed Meese, who served as attorney general under Reagan and appears prominently in the book — the two chief protagonists of “Subversives” are Mario Savio, the troubled, charismatic leader of the Free Speech Movement, and Clark Kerr, the chancellor at UC Berkeley in the mid-’60s and Savio’s de facto chief antagonist within the administration.

The two men saw each other as ideological opponents. Kerr was in his 50s when Berkeley students began agitating for the right to distribute flyers and hold political meetings on campus. A true Cold War liberal, Kerr believed in freedom of speech but thought that politics — and therefore political activism — should be kept out of the university. In fact, Kerr had already incurred Hoover’s wrath by doing just that, when he refused to participate unilaterally in Hoover’s investigation of suspected Communists within Berkeley.

But Savio, a gifted 22-year-old graduate student from Manhattan’s Lower East Side, had spent the summer of 1964 in the Deep South with the Freedom Riders, watching local law enforcement turn police dogs and fire hoses on unarmed protestors. Three fellow riders, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, had been murdered in Mississippi. And perhaps most significant, Savio, who was born Catholic, had learned certain lessons from growing up in the shadow of the Holocaust.

“Savio had a very religious upbringing,” says Rosenfeld. “And one of the things that affected him growing up was the photos of Jews killed during the Holocaust. It made him question how people could acquiesce to such inhumanity and violence.”

Kerr, who died in 2003, told Rosenfeld that he’d “severely underestimated” the impact of the civil rights movement on the students of Berkeley. Kerr believed that politics should be kept out of the university environment out of principle, but many of the students who hadn’t risked their lives in the South that summer had still participated in various sit-ins and civil rights actions in the Bay Area.

“Savio saw the civil rights movement as a way of holding out hope,” says Rosenfeld. “A way to respond to obvious injustice such as the Holocaust.”

For Savio and the student protestors he helped inspire — not just in California but across the nation — the proven bad faith of American lawmakers in the South, the atmosphere of anti-Communist paranoia that had characterized the past decade and soon the escalating conflict in Vietnam rendered specious any division that university officials made between speech and action. As far as the protesters were concerned, Kerr was little more than a lackey.

We quit the café for a tour of the Berkeley campus, starting with Sproul Plaza, the site of some of the first and largest protests of the Cold War. We pass through the famous Sather Gate, where the words “Fiat Lux” (let there be light) are carved in steel. I ask whether Kerr and Savio, the liberal educator and the radical firebrand, could have found common ground if they’d met 15 years later and sat down for coffee. “It might have taken a lot longer than that,” Rosenfeld says. “There was quite a divide, and they were very far apart, years later.”

Ironically, Rosenfeld’s investigation has revealed that the two men had far more in common than they thought: Both were targeted by Hoover’s FBI, and both were professionally damaged by the bureau’s unlawful investigations. And both learned about the extent of the FBI’s interference with their lives through Rosenfeld. It was Rosenfeld who first showed Kerr documents indicating that Hoover had conspired to have him fired for not cooperating sufficiently with the FBI. Kerr was shocked. He had requested his own file years earlier and had been told it was unavailable. As for Savio, the FBI continued to keep his file open, and to investigate his activities, long after he had ceased all political activity and been declared a non-threat by the bureau’s own investigators.

While Kerr’s and Savio’s factions faced off against each other, the true subversives — the ones who sought to control the flow of information — turn out to have been the agents, provocateurs and informants of Hoover’s FBI, who operated freely with little or no oversight from the government of the democracy they had sworn to serve.

“One of the points of my book,” says Rosenfeld, his voice louder and clearer out in the open air of the quad, “is that the combination of secrecy and power is always potentially dangerous to democracy.”

We stop at Moffitt Library, a building that today also houses a student hangout called the Free Speech Movement Café. The building is locked, but in the late afternoon light we can see a poster-sized photo of Mario Savio through the window, and beneath it, Savio’s words: “To me, freedom of speech represents the very dignity of what a human being is. That’s what marks us off from the stones and the stars … as just below the angels.”

Sheerly Avni is a freelance writer based in New York and San Francisco.


The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.





Find us on Facebook!
  • Move over Dr. Ruth — there’s a (not-so) new sassy Jewish sex-therapist in town. Her name is Shirley Zussman — and just turned 100 years old.
  • From kosher wine to Ecstasy, presenting some of our best bootlegs:
  • Sara Kramer is not the first New Yorker to feel the alluring pull of the West Coast — but she might be the first heading there with Turkish Urfa pepper and za’atar in her suitcase.
  • About 1 in 40 American Jews will get pancreatic cancer (Ruth Bader Ginsberg is one of the few survivors).
  • At which grade level should classroom discussions include topics like the death of civilians kidnapping of young Israelis and sirens warning of incoming rockets?
  • Wanted: Met Council CEO.
  • “Look, on the one hand, I understand him,” says Rivka Ben-Pazi, a niece of Elchanan Hameiri, the boy that Henk Zanoli saved. “He had a family tragedy.” But on the other hand, she said, “I think he was wrong.” What do you think?
  • How about a side of Hitler with your spaghetti?
  • Why "Be fruitful and multiply" isn't as simple as it seems:
  • William Schabas may be the least of Israel's problems.
  • You've heard of the #IceBucketChallenge, but Forward publisher Sam Norich has something better: a #SoupBucketChallenge (complete with matzo balls!) Jon Stewart, Sarah Silverman & David Remnick, you have 24 hours!
  • Did Hamas just take credit for kidnapping the three Israeli teens?
  • "We know what it means to be in the headlines. We know what it feels like when the world sits idly by and watches the news from the luxury of their living room couches. We know the pain of silence. We know the agony of inaction."
  • When YA romance becomes "Hasidsploitation":
  • "I am wrapping up the summer with a beach vacation with my non-Jewish in-laws. They’re good people and real leftists who try to live the values they preach. This was a quality I admired, until the latest war in Gaza. Now they are adamant that American Jews need to take more responsibility for the deaths in Gaza. They are educated people who understand the political complexity, but I don’t think they get the emotional complexity of being an American Jew who is capable of criticizing Israel but still feels a deep connection to it. How can I get this across to them?"
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?




















We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.