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The level of mobilization was unusual in France, whose 300,000 Jews formed what then was the largest Jewish community in continental Western Europe outside Germany.
“Jews in Paris were distant from Germany, they were not as aware of the threat,” said Lazare, 89. “In the minds of French Jews, who were very patriotic, the French army was the strongest in the world. They didn’t think the Nazis were an existential threat even after Kristallnacht.”
But the Jews of Alsace-Lorraine knew better thanks in part to what Yad Vashem describes as “riotous demonstrations” that erupted there in September 1938, two months before Kristallnacht. Though no one was hurt, Jewish shops were attacked in a precursor to the much larger and more deadly Kristallnacht pogroms.
“You have to recall that Alsace used to be German until 1918,” Lazare said. “So some locals considered themselves Germans. There was some virulent anti-Semitic propaganda there. There was Nazi agitation. It showed us just how strong the Nazi ideology was in the hearts of its supporters.”
Like many Alsatian Jews, Lazare’s family sold their home and other valuables months before the Nazi invasion. Within hours of the arrival of the German army in 1940, the family was prepared to go into hiding.
Their preparedness was due in part to the family’s exposure to Jewish refugees who had fled the Nazis. Lazare recalls hearing from his high school teacher “of the bands of Nazi thugs that would go around attacking Jews in Berlin” in 1939, a full year before the Nazis overran France.
But Alsatian Jewry’s high level of alert also may have been connected to memories of persecution that long predated the Nazis. In 1848, a series of pogroms erupted amid claims that Jews in Damascus were responsible for the ritual murder of a French priest in the Syrian city. The false espionage conviction of the Alsatian Jew Alfred Dreyfus in 1894 generated a fresh wave of anti-Semitic hostility.
An impressive testament to the caution of Alsatian Jews was discovered last year in Dambach-la-Ville, a small town southwest of Strasbourg, where construction workers found a Jewish archive that had been masterfully concealed in the late 19th century inside a dummy ceiling at a synagogue.
The concealment was so perfect that it went undetected for more than a century. Jewish families that survived the war and briefly returned to Dambach never told the locals about the cache in the old synagogue, which was sold to the municipality several years ago.
Other Alsatian towns may have similar caches, according to Jean-Camille Bloch, the president of the SHIAL historical society, which focused on the Jewish presence in the Alsace-Lorraine region.
“The 1930s were a lesson that I have not forgotten to this day,” Loinger said. “You always have to face reality and be prepared.”