For the past 14 years, French Jews have grown accustomed to coming under attack during periods of conflict in the Middle East from hostile elements within their country’s large Arab and Muslim communities.
One recent incident, however, stood out: the July 13 riot by Palestinian sympathizers outside the Synagogue de la Roquette in central Paris that trapped some 200 terrified people inside the building. The incident sparked a street brawl between the rioters and dozens of Jewish men who arrived to defend the synagogue.
“In people’s minds, there will be a before and after the Synagogue de la Roquette,” Joel Mergui, president of the Consistoire, French Jewry’s central religious services organization, told the French newsweekly Le Nouvel Observateur. The incident at the synagogue involved pro-Palestinian protesters who had reportedly just come from a large demonstration against Israel’s airstrikes in Gaza.
The violence drew a stern rebuke from French President Francois Hollande.
“There cannot be disturbances and disruptions, intrusions or attempted intrusions in places of worship,” Hollande said during a television interview the next day. “Not in synagogues like what happened yesterday, but I’d say the same about mosques, churches, temples.”
Since Israel launched its military operation against Hamas in Gaza, Jewish houses of worship in and around Paris have been targets.
On the Friday before the violence at the Synagogue de la Roquette, a firebomb was hurled at the entrance to a synagogue in the Paris suburb of Aulnay-sous-Bois. The next day, an angry pro-Palestinian crowd gathered outside a synagogue in Paris’ Belleville neighborhood and chanted about slaughtering Jews. And on the same day as the Roquette synagogue incident, rioters also attacked the nearby Synagogue de la rue des Tournelles.
The riot outside the Synagogue de la Roquette stood out because of the terror of those inside the shul who had assembled for a gathering in solidarity with Israel. But video footage from the violence outside highlights another reason the incident seemed to some like a watershed moment: The ferocious and unusual response to the threat by young Jewish men who pushed back the pro-Palestinian rioters.
Their action resonated with many in France’s vibrant Jewish community of 600,000 who increasingly feel they must rely on themselves for their safety.
The synagogue’s defenders reportedly included individuals from the right-wing Betar Zionist youth movement and the French branch of the far-right Jewish Defense League, the Ligue de Defense Juive (LDJ), as well as members of the French Jewish community’s security service.
Some organizers of the protest against Israel’s military operation said that Jewish activists helped provoke the violence by goading pro-Palestinian demonstrators.
But witnesses like Alain Azria, a French Jewish journalist who documented the clashes, told a very different story. He said that the Jewish youths were merely responding to an attempt by the anti-Israel rioters to break into the synagogue.
“Thank God they were there,” he told JTA. “The anti-Israel protesters had murder on their mind.”
According to Azria, the young Jews arrived at the scene almost simultaneously with the pro-Palestinian rioters.
“At a certain point, a group of a few dozen splintered off the main protest and headed to synagogue,” he said of the pro-Palestinians rioters. “The Jewish defenders saw this because they were monitoring the demonstration and followed to put up a defensive fight.”
The police on the scene were initially badly outnumbered by the pro-Palestinian rioters. Azria said that the five police officers present focused their efforts on guarding the building’s barricaded entrance while they waited approximately 10 minutes for backup to arrive.
The president of the European Jewish Congress, Moshe Kantor, called the incident an “attempted pogrom.”
The CRIF umbrella group of French Jewish communities criticized what it called “the misrepresentation of the incident by some media.”
“These attacks are passed off as inter-communal clashes, when in reality, these are hateful, violent and unilateral anti-Semitic attacks by pro-Palestinian and Islamist movements,” the CRIF said in a statement.
The CRIF praised the synagogue’s defenders. Though it did not mention the LDJ by name, CRIF’s statement was striking given its consistent condemnations of the vigilante tactics of the LDJ, which is known to boast about its violent actions.
The non-Jewish right-wing columnist and former politician Christine Tasin may have expressed what was on many French Jews’ minds when she wrote on the news site Riposte Laique: “The real scandal is not that LDJ exists, but that it needs to exist.”
Chlomi Zenouda of the National Bureau for Vigilance Against Anti-Semitism — a watchdog group with relatively friendly relations with the LDJ — said that the young Jews who rushed to the synagogue’s defense reflected “the rising level of preparedness by Jewish groups that used to be sidelined as alarmist or radical, but which are now proving they were right to rely on their own force to defend themselves — and others.”