Following in the Footsteps of Spain’s Expelled Sephardim

By Larry Tye

Published August 19, 2011, issue of August 26, 2011.
  • Print
  • Share Share

Most American Jews who travel make at least a token attempt to visit a synagogue or otherwise to taste the Jewish flavor of whatever land they are in. But few have the time, instinct or know how to faithfully follow in the footsteps of their forbears, especially when those trails lead across a continent. Fewer still pay heed to Judaism’s Sephardic as opposed to its Ashkenazi roots.

Enter Benjamin Hary and 32 fellow wanderers from Atlanta’s Emory University.

Hary, a professor of Hebrew, Arabic and linguistics, and his troupe spent five weeks this summer exploring Sephardic culture in Europe. They started in Spain, where Judaism flourished for centuries under Christian and Muslim rule. Then they went where the Jews did after being expelled from Spain in 1492 — to what became a thriving Diaspora, ranging from France and the Netherlands in the east down to Italy and Greece. The point was to understand the roots and effects of the Inquisition. It also was to celebrate the following 500 years of cultural and religious re-rooting and renewal.

“This is so much more significant than teaching it in a classroom at Emory,” said the Israeli-born Hary, an expert in Judeo-Arabic linguistics and history. “What could be better than sitting around Maimonides’s statue in Cordoba and reading from his writings? And then [to] discuss it?”

Hary first took students on the odyssey in 1992, on the 500th anniversary of the expulsion. It was a unique commemoration and, in Hary’s mind, a one-shot deal. It worked so well that he did it seven more times, most recently this past May and June.

In Madrid, the group went on a walking tour of the historic Jewish quarter and had dinner with America’s ambassador to Spain, Alan Solomont. In Rome they toured the Vatican and had lunch in the old Jewish ghetto. In Paris they hung with Muslim youth, while in Salonika, they talked with a second-generation Holocaust survivor. At each stop, they didn’t merely accept what their guides said, like most tourists do. Instead, prompted by their relentless professor and his teaching assistants, the Emory students probed, debated and, when the guide got it wrong — on everything from linguistics to denying a particular country’s complicity in the expulsions — they tried to set the record straight and to see why, as Hary kept telling them, simple answers are seldom sufficient. Comparing and contrasting the experiences of communities as different as Barcelona and Venice, they came to understand how ancient experiences could hold compelling lessons for contemporary Jews.

History was the focus, along with understanding how language reflects and affects culture. And while Judaism was the reason they were there, the students also explored the rich and at times problematic interactions that Jews of old had with Christians and Muslims. Each student kept a journal and was expected to write in it at least five times a week, synthesizing what he or she had learned in class, saw on tours and read from a syllabus that tracked the lands visited. A final paper also was required, one whose topic they picked at the start of the course and whose thesis they fine-tuned during their journey.

So who were the Jews in whose footsteps they followed, and why should Emory kids or anyone else care? Faced with the choice of converting to Christianity or leaving, an estimated 200,000 Jews abandoned Spain in 1492 (some say the number was as high as 800,000, others as low as 40,000). Whatever the number, it was huge by the standards of the day — when most of world Jewry spoke Judeo-Arabic — and suggested how important faith was to Spanish Jews. Today, the label “Sephardic” is sometimes applied narrowly to refer to Jews directly descended from those in Spain, and other times to include any who aren’t Ashkenazi. There are large Sephardic communities in Israel, France, Argentina, Canada and the United States, many coming over the past half-century from the Middle East and North Africa. Today there are about 50,000 Jews in Spain.

Aviela Lerner, an anthropology major and global health minor, went on Hary’s tour not so much for academic reasons (she plans to be a nurse practitioner) as for cultural ones (she knew about her Ashkenazi roots, but not about any ties she might have to Sephardic cultures). The 19-year-old sophomore from Newton, Mass., was not disappointed. “Learning about the rich history and culture in these communities was fascinating and taught me about where many of the Jewish traditions originate,” Lerner said.

What stood out to Benjamin Lejfer, a 20-year-old business major and Ashkenazi Jew from Newton, is that last summer’s course was “the first time that I looked at and/or studied Judaism from a strictly academic point of view.… I studied Judaism the same way I study math or science.”

Studying Judaism at all was a new thing for Lynn Hargrow, a 21-year-old history major from Miami who is not Jewish. At Emory, he has been focusing on such issues as cultural intolerance and expulsion, so Hary’s course seemed like a natural. It was, and now that he is back in America, Hargrow said, “I have made the decision to learn Hebrew and Arabic, in an effort to better understand Judaism and Islam.”

Larry Tye is the author of six books, including “Home Lands: Portraits of the New Jewish Diaspora” (Henry Holt & Co., 2001).


The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.





Find us on Facebook!
  • Undeterred by the conflict, 24 Jews participated in the first ever Jewish National Fund— JDate singles trip to Israel. Translation: Jews age 30 to 45 travelled to Israel to get it on in the sun, with a side of hummus.
  • "It pains and shocks me to say this, but here goes: My father was right all along. He always told me, as I spouted liberal talking points at the Shabbos table and challenged his hawkish views on Israel and the Palestinians to his unending chagrin, that I would one day change my tune." Have you had a similar experience?
  • "'What’s this, mommy?' she asked, while pulling at the purple sleeve to unwrap this mysterious little gift mom keeps hidden in the inside pocket of her bag. Oh boy, how do I answer?"
  • "I fear that we are witnessing the end of politics in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. I see no possibility for resolution right now. I look into the future and see only a void." What do you think?
  • Not a gazillionaire? Take the "poor door."
  • "We will do what we must to protect our people. We have that right. We are not less deserving of life and quiet than anyone else. No more apologies."
  • "Woody Allen should have quit while he was ahead." Ezra Glinter's review of "Magic in the Moonlight": http://jd.fo/f4Q1Q
  • Jon Stewart responds to his critics: “Look, obviously there are many strong opinions on this. But just merely mentioning Israel or questioning in any way the effectiveness or humanity of Israel’s policies is not the same thing as being pro-Hamas.”
  • "My bat mitzvah party took place in our living room. There were only a few Jewish kids there, and only one from my Sunday school class. She sat in the corner, wearing the right clothes, asking her mom when they could go." The latest in our Promised Lands series — what state should we visit next?
  • Former Israeli National Security Advisor Yaakov Amidror: “A cease-fire will mean that anytime Hamas wants to fight it can. Occupation of Gaza will bring longer-term quiet, but the price will be very high.” What do you think?
  • Should couples sign a pre-pregnancy contract, outlining how caring for the infant will be equally divided between the two parties involved? Just think of it as a ketubah for expectant parents:
  • Many #Israelis can't make it to bomb shelters in time. One of them is Amos Oz.
  • According to Israeli professor Mordechai Kedar, “the only thing that can deter terrorists, like those who kidnapped the children and killed them, is the knowledge that their sister or their mother will be raped."
  • Why does ultra-Orthodox group Agudath Israel of America receive its largest donation from the majority owners of Walmart? Find out here: http://jd.fo/q4XfI
  • Woody Allen on the situation in #Gaza: It's “a terrible, tragic thing. Innocent lives are lost left and right, and it’s a horrible situation that eventually has to right itself.”
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?




















We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.