Ninety-year-old Sonia Anger survived the Nazis by fleeing Romania after the Germans invaded in 1941 and taking refuge in the Ural Mountains. Today, the brown-haired, 5-foot-6-inch widow struggles to survive in New York City on a monthly Social Security check of $1,130, or $14,000 a year.
“I’m sweeping the floor, and have little to eat, and I have no new clothes,” she said.
It’s a different kind of struggle to be sure. Anger receives some help in the form of social services funded by German government reparations. This includes the meal and musical entertainment she was enjoying at a Brooklyn coffee house program sponsored by Selfhelp Community Services while speaking to this Forward reporter. German reparations are a crucial means of support for many survivors in America living below the poverty line.
In the New York region — where at least one-third of all Holocaust survivors in America live — “55% of Holocaust survivors (approximately 40,000) can be considered ‘poor’ because they live below 150% of the federal poverty thresholds,” according to Pearl Beck, director of Geographic Studies for the UJA-Federation Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011.
On July 8, board members of the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, the organization that distributes the German government’s reparations payments to survivors, will gather in Midtown Manhattan for their annual meeting, just a 45-minute subway ride away from the Brooklyn Selfhelp center Anger attends.
A major point of debate at their gathering will be the Claims Conference’s own future. Two special review committees appointed by the board are due to deliver reports meant to follow up on findings of corporate misgovernance last year by the organization’s own ombudsman. According to a JTA report, the two committees will recommend that the Claims Conference negotiate with the German government for further funds in the future, even after the last survivor dies, to be used for continuing Holocaust education and commemoration.
But what about the disproportionate poverty in which Holocaust survivors are living now?
The Claims Conference did not respond to a request by the Forward for the board meeting’s agenda, making it impossible to report how much of the meeting will be devoted to this problem. But interviews with several of the Claims Conference’s present and past board members reveal disparate views on how the group should deploy its assets to better mitigate the high poverty rates among its prime constituents.
One thing on which all appear to agree is the futility of raiding the Claims Conference’s own standing assets, valued at more than $500 million. These assets, much of them in the form of European real estate formerly owned by Jews or Jewish institutions, are held separately from the ongoing revenue stream the group receives from the German government to make reparation payments. The organization obtained most of these assets through negotiations with the German government after East Germany and West Germany reunited.