Sholom Aleichem: A Star Shines Brightly

A Real Life Drama of Fairy Tales and Fame

By Dara Horn

Published January 20, 2009, issue of January 30, 2009.
  • Print
  • Share Share

To read an excerpt from a new translation of “Wandering Stars,” click here.

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Sholom Aleichem. To celebrate the occasion, a number of events have been planned, and several new translations of his work will be released. On February 9, “Wandering Stars,” his novel about the Yiddish theater, will be published by Viking in a new translation by Aliza Shevrin. Two excerpts will appear in this paper over the next month.

Sholom Aleichem can be forgiven for writing stories that often resemble fairy tales, since his own life was one itself. One of nine children in a poverty-stricken Ukrainian Jewish family, complete with an evil stepmother, Sholom Rabinovitch (the writer’s real name) left home when he was a teenager, in search of his fortune. At 16, he took a job tutoring the daughter of a wealthy Jewish businessman. He promptly fell in love with his 13-year-old student. After several years the two eloped, to the businessman’s despair. But shortly after reconciling, his father-in-law died and left Rabinovitch, already the author of several stories under his pen name, a vast fortune.

This windfall allowed him to devote himself entirely to writing — until he lost everything on the Kiev stock market. After this, he spent the rest of his life moving between cities and continents, avoiding his creditors as his fame skyrocketed. His funeral, attracting more than 100,000 mourners, remains the largest in New York City history. With a biography like that, it’s hardly surprising that his stories tend to be larger than life — and “Wandering Stars” takes its readers on a wild ride indeed.

“Wandering Stars” is one of several novels by Sholom Aleichem that directly address the peculiar challenges of the Jewish artist. Judaism is a culture highly ambivalent about art, and the prohibition against graven images is merely the most obvious expression of this discomfort. More significant is the looming role of the Creator: One of the premises of Judaism is a constant awareness of the limitations of human creativity, quite the opposite of modern secular Western attitudes, which often revere art as sacred or even redemptive.

As Jewish culture first confronted modernity in the 19th century, the ambivalence of its emerging artists — those tugged back toward traditional life, those enraptured by the gentile world of high art, those inspired to invent a uniquely Jewish creativity and those merely hoping to get rich from everyone else’s fascination — was ripe for satire. In his novels “Stempenyu” (about a brilliant musician who performs only at weddings) and “Yosele Solovey” (about a cantorial prodigy drawn to the opera), Sholom Aleichem shows how Jewish talent was trapped in a traditional world; then he shows how the yearning to escape the Jewish sphere leads to an equally debilitating trap of exploitation.

“Wandering Stars” begins with a disappearance. Two teenagers in the Bessarabian shtetl of Holeneshti — one the daughter of a poor cantor, the other the son of a wealthy businessman — go missing from their homes on the same night. The town’s gossips soon realize that the youngsters’ departures coincided with the night that a traveling Yiddish theater troupe, the first that backwater Holeneshti had ever seen, finally left town. And thus, Sholom Aleichem launches a story that spans years and continents, traveling with the aspiring actors’ performances and quests to Bucharest, Vienna, London and New York as they search for each other after competing theater troupes separate them, as their families chase them and as they redefine what it means to be a Jewish artist in Europe and America.

As befits a culture highly uncomfortable with the idea of art, Yiddish theater evolved in the 19th century not only from non-Jewish models, but also from inherently religious Jewish precedents, including Purim plays and cantorial performances. The two young stars in Sholom Aleichem’s novel come from precisely these traditions. Leibl Rafalovitch, the son of Holeneshti’s wealthiest man, becomes enthralled by the theater when the traveling troupe begins performing in his father’s rented barn, and his own talents come to the director’s attention when he performs part of a Purim shpiel.

The other young performer is Reizel, the cantor’s daughter who has inherited her father’s vocal talent. Both actors change their names and abandon their pasts as they chase success, indentured to theater troupes run by charlatans, womanizers and thieves. But while the cantor’s daughter wins fame in the gentile theaters of Vienna, London and New York, the rich man’s son’s greatest achievement is his performance of “Uriel Acosta” — an actual play from the Jewish repertoire. The play dramatized the life of a famous Dutch-Jewish heretic who must choose between his beliefs and the community that claims him. As actor chases actress across the world, trailed by traditionalists and cornered by hucksters while endless hi-jinks ensue, Sholom Aleichem subtly asks readers whether art offers people a frivolous escape or a route to redemption — and he refuses to answer his own question.

We tend to judge literary works written in other languages or during other eras by our own standards, forgetting what readers of the original preferred and expected. It is often said that humor is the most salient feature of Yiddish literature, but in fact the real hallmark of this literature is something quite disdained by today’s critics: earnestness. Sholom Aleichem was a sophisticated writer whose wordplays and subtle ironies rarely survive translation, particularly translation that indulges the reader’s expectations of nostalgia and kitsch. Yet, one thing that translation captures is Sholom Aleichem’s willingness to openly recognize the beauty and power of emotions that modern English readers would dismiss as melodrama. The writer understood that Jews of every persuasion, despite their overdeveloped critical abilities, tend to be secret sentimentalists, their brains ashamed when their hearts are moved. When reading this translation of “Wandering Stars,” the reader is best advised to set aside the English part of his brain and to cast off any shame for his Jewish heart.

The excerpt to the right describes the “discovery” of Reizel’s talent after Albert Shchupak and Sholom-Meyer, respectively the director and producer of the traveling troupe in Holeneshti, overhear the young woman singing in the street. Drawn by her skill (and by more lascivious motivations), they follow her home for dinner, hoping to flatter Yisroyeli, her cantor father, into giving her up. This passage demonstrates the easy overlap between religion and performance, and the innocence of Jews never exposed to the theater’s glamour or its seamier side. But what shines most brightly is the author’s affection for these innocents — and his appreciation for the inherent artistry in the Jewish tradition itself.

Dara Horn received a doctorate in Yiddish and Hebrew literature from Harvard University in 2006. Her third novel, “All Other Nights” (W.W. Norton), will be published in April.


The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.





Find us on Facebook!
  • How about a side of Hitler with your spaghetti?
  • Why "Be fruitful and multiply" isn't as simple as it seems:
  • William Schabas may be the least of Israel's problems.
  • You've heard of the #IceBucketChallenge, but Forward publisher Sam Norich has something better: a #SoupBucketChallenge (complete with matzo balls!) Jon Stewart, Sarah Silverman & David Remnick, you have 24 hours!
  • Did Hamas just take credit for kidnapping the three Israeli teens?
  • "We know what it means to be in the headlines. We know what it feels like when the world sits idly by and watches the news from the luxury of their living room couches. We know the pain of silence. We know the agony of inaction."
  • When YA romance becomes "Hasidsploitation":
  • "I am wrapping up the summer with a beach vacation with my non-Jewish in-laws. They’re good people and real leftists who try to live the values they preach. This was a quality I admired, until the latest war in Gaza. Now they are adamant that American Jews need to take more responsibility for the deaths in Gaza. They are educated people who understand the political complexity, but I don’t think they get the emotional complexity of being an American Jew who is capable of criticizing Israel but still feels a deep connection to it. How can I get this across to them?"
  • “'I made a new friend,' my son told his grandfather later that day. 'I don’t know her name, but she was very nice. We met on the bus.' Welcome to Israel."
  • A Jewish female sword swallower. It's as cool as it sounds (and looks)!
  • Why did David Menachem Gordon join the IDF? In his own words: "The Israel Defense Forces is an army that fights for her nation’s survival and the absence of its warriors equals destruction from numerous regional foes. America is not quite under the threat of total annihilation… Simply put, I felt I was needed more in Israel than in the United States."
  • Leonard Fein's most enduring legacy may be his rejection of dualism: the idea that Jews must choose between assertiveness and compassion, between tribalism and universalism. Steven M. Cohen remembers a great Jewish progressive:
  • BREAKING: Missing lone soldier David Menachem Gordon has been found dead in central Israel. The Ohio native was 21 years old.
  • “They think they can slap on an Amish hat and a long black robe, and they’ve created a Hasid." What do you think of Hollywood's portrayal of Hasidic Jews?
  • “I’ve been doing this since I was a teenager. I didn’t think I would have to do it when I was 90.” Hedy Epstein fled Nazi Germany in 1933 on a Kinderstransport.
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?




















We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.