DNA and You — Personalized Genomics Goes Jewish

Published August 03, 2011, issue of August 12, 2011.
  • Print
  • Share Share

The Human Genome Project turned 10 this year. In the decade since scientists first published our genetic blueprint, huge strides have been made in understanding the biological basis of inherited disease, the history of humankind and the role that genetics can play in modern medicine.

The genetic map also created a new industry of personalized genomics. Hundreds of early adopters have already decoded all 3 billion letters of their own DNA, and, thanks to advances in technology, the number of people with full genome sequences is expected to rise dramatically in the next few years.

To find out what having a genome sequence can mean for one’s health and personal sense of Judaism, The Forward asked Jewish scientists with fully sequenced genomes to share the lessons they’ve learned from their own DNA. Here is what they said:

Steven Pinker: Tribal Stirring

My mitochondrial DNA is specific to Ashkenazim, and similar to ones found in Sephardic and Oriental Jews and in Druze and Kurds. My Y-chromosome is also Levantine, common among Jews and sprinkled across the eastern Mediterranean. Even this secular Jew experienced a primitive tribal stirring in learning this deep genealogy. On the other hand, these markers do not literally tell you about “your ancestry,” but only half of your ancestry from a generation ago, a quarter from two generations ago, and so on. The further back you go, the more ancestors you have, and the very concept of personal ancestry becomes meaningless. I found it just as thrilling to zoom outward on the diagram and see my place in a family tree that embraces all of humanity.

I also turn out to be a carrier for one of the Ashkenazi recessive disease genes, familial dysautonomia. A child with two copies has a malfunctioning autonomic nervous system, which sentences him to a miserable childhood and a premature death. My wife, the novelist and philosopher Rebecca Goldstein, turns out to be a carrier as well. It’s pleasing to think we are distantly related. It also allows us to shut the door on whatever wistfulness we have about having met too late in life to have had children together. The gene was only recently discovered, so the road not taken could have led to tragedy.

Steven Pinker is a professor of psychology at Harvard University and author of the forthcoming book “The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined.”

Misha Angrist: Genetic Solace

Having my genome sequenced has had a subtle but profound impact on my relationship with my family. Learning my genetic code was an occasion to have a conversation with my parents, and, to some extent, my kids about our family history, what traits run in our family and to what extent those are likely to be genetic. (But obviously one needn’t get sequenced in order to have those discussions!)

Of greatest concern to me was breast cancer. My mother was diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer (she is alive and well today, Baruch haShem), and, thus, there’s a decent chance that she carries one of the “Jewish” mutations that predisposes her to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. If that were true, then I could have transmitted that mutation to my daughters. But, having had my genome inspected by a breast cancer geneticist, I am fairly certain that my daughters’ risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer is no higher than average (although “average” is still way too high).

I suspect my story will turn out to be fairly typical. We all carry mutations in our genomes, but whether they manifest themselves at any time in our lives depends on a lot of things. My hope is that, as the price of personal genomics continues to fall and more people get involved, we will come to see this information neither as a crystal ball nor as some infallible window into the past. It is simply a rich source of data that can give us additional clues about ourselves and our families, whether it’s our ancestry or our health.

Misha Angrist is a writer and assistant professor at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy. His first book, “Here Is a Human Being,” was published in November.

David Goldstein: Cultural Conduit

I sequenced my genome earlier this year for a new course Misha Angrist and I are teaching at Duke University called “The Past and Future of the Human Genome.” What better way to make clear that genomic self-awareness is coming to all than to spend the last day of class describing what is seen in the genomes of the professors?

Upon inspection, I didn’t find much of anything. Nothing obviously harmful — but nothing obviously helpful, either. This is perhaps no big surprise. Currently, we mainly only know how to interpret bad news in our DNA, and the older you are, the less likely it is that you will see anything noteworthy. So for now, and no doubt for some time to come, sequencing will be most informative in the young.

Not that there is nothing there for the middle-aged healthy fellow. I do carry certain gene variants that would be relevant to responses to certain drugs — such as those used to treat hepatitis C and HIV — which, fortunately, I am unlikely to ever need. Over time, I would expect many more variants to be identified that could be relevant to drugs that I might someday use. It’s comforting to know that my genome is handy in case I ever want to consult it for such purposes.

Then, of course, there is ancestry. As someone carrying a passport reading “David Benjamin Goldstein,” my father’s cultural context is pretty obvious. Looking under my genomic hood, sure enough, there is a Y chromosome there that not only appears to be characteristic of the Near East — it in fact matches the very one my colleagues and I described some time ago as the one shared by kohanim of the Jewish priesthood. As silly as a professional geneticist may know it to be, it is somehow gratifying to think I have been a conduit through which ancient Israelites passed a Y chromosome through to my son, a small boy now playing in the streets of Chapel Hill, N.C. That chromosome has certainly been around the block.

David B. Goldstein is director of the Center for Human Genome Variation at Duke University Medical School and author of “Jacob’s Legacy: A Genetic View of Jewish History.”

The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.

Find us on Facebook!
  • The eggplant is beloved in Israel. So why do Americans keep giving it a bad rap? With this new recipe, Vered Guttman sets out to defend the honor of her favorite vegetable.
  • “KlezKamp has always been a crazy quilt of gay and straight, religious and nonreligious, Jewish and gentile.” Why is the klezmer festival shutting down now?
  • “You can plagiarize the Bible, can’t you?” Jill Sobule says when asked how she went about writing the lyrics for a new 'Yentl' adaptation. “A couple of the songs I completely stole." Share this with the theater-lovers in your life!
  • Will Americans who served in the Israeli army during the Gaza operation face war crimes charges when they get back home?
  • Talk about a fashion faux pas. What was Zara thinking with the concentration camp look?
  • “The Black community was resistant to the Jewish community coming into the neighborhood — at first.” Watch this video about how a group of gardeners is rebuilding trust between African-Americans and Jews in Detroit.
  • "I am a Jewish woman married to a non-Jewish man who was raised Catholic, but now considers himself a “common-law Jew.” We are raising our two young children as Jews. My husband's parents are still semi-practicing Catholics. When we go over to either of their homes, they bow their heads, often hold hands, and say grace before meals. This is an especially awkward time for me, as I'm uncomfortable participating in a non-Jewish religious ritual, but don't want his family to think I'm ungrateful. It's becoming especially vexing to me now that my oldest son is 7. What's the best way to handle this situation?" http://jd.fo/b4ucX What would you do?
  • Maybe he was trying to give her a "schtickle of fluoride"...
  • It's all fun, fun, fun, until her dad takes the T-Bird away for Shabbos.
  • "Like many Jewish people around the world, I observed Shabbat this weekend. I didn’t light candles or recite Hebrew prayers; I didn’t eat challah or matzoh ball soup or brisket. I spent my Shabbat marching for justice for Eric Garner of Staten Island, Michael Brown of Ferguson, and all victims of police brutality."
  • Happy #NationalDogDay! To celebrate, here's a little something from our archives:
  • A Jewish couple was attacked on Monday night in New York City's Upper East Side. According to police, the attackers flew Palestinian flags.
  • "If the only thing viewers knew about the Jews was what they saw on The Simpsons they — and we — would be well served." What's your favorite Simpsons' moment?
  • "One uncle of mine said, 'I came to America after World War II and I hitchhiked.' And Robin said, 'I waited until there was a 747 and a kosher meal.'" Watch Billy Crystal's moving tribute to Robin Williams at last night's #Emmys:
  • "Americans are much more focused on the long term and on the end goal which is ending the violence, and peace. It’s a matter of zooming out rather than debating the day to day.”
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?

We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.