Skip To Content

The courageous German ‘orchestra’ that tried (and failed) to stop Hitler

Tom Dunkel’s absorbing history chronicles the little-known exploits of the Germans’ resistance in WWII

White Knights in the Black Orchestra: The Extraordinary Story of the Germans Who Resisted Hitler
By Tom Dunkel
Hachette Books, 464 pages, $32

Last year, Rebecca Donner’s gripping biography, “All the Frequent Troubles of Our Days,” explored her American great-great-aunt’s exploits in the anti-Nazi resistance. With her German husband, Arvid, Mildred Harnack was active in the leftist opposition and spy circles that the Third Reich disdainfully dubbed the “Red Orchestra” and eventually crushed.

For students of the generally underappreciated (and mostly unsuccessful) German resistance, Tom Dunkel’s “White Knights in the Black Orchestra” makes an indispensable companion read.

Despite our knowledge of the arc of history, Dunkel’s nonfiction narrative is surprisingly suspenseful, as well as elegantly written. Deftly interweaving divergent stories, Dunkel emphasizes ironies and unforeseen twists as his characters navigate Nazi bureaucracies, shifting ideological currents and the pressures of war.

Like Donner’s book, “White Knights in the Black Orchestra” is a tale of great heroism, shadowed by villainy and mixed motives, at a time and place when the moral stakes could not have been higher.

Tom Dunkel’s ‘White Knights in the Black Orchestra’ tells the stories of German dissenters who repeatedly tried to warn the Allies of Nazi invasion plans. Courtesy of Hachette

Among Dunkel’s protagonists, most of them German government officials or military leaders, are reformed or wavering Nazis. (Some had themselves committed war crimes, a narrative thread Dunkel doesn’t pursue.) Many, in contrast to Red Orchestra members, had conservative or authoritarian views.

Their motivations for rejecting the regime varied. Some had opposed Hitler from the start. Others were repelled by his increasingly disastrous war and the mounting barbarism in its wake, including the mass deportation and slaughter of European Jews.

Black Orchestra resisters (again, a Nazi label, rather than their own) looked not to the Soviet Union, but to Britain and the United States, for assistance. But the Allies, despite numerous approaches, remained suspicious and intent on unconditional surrender. Concrete help never materialized, to Dunkel’s unconcealed dismay.

One base of resistance operations was Germany’s Abwehr, the regime’s highly competent intelligence service. Oskar Schindler, later a famous Holocaust rescuer, was an Abwehr agent in Czechoslovakia. The agency’s head was Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, “a quirky character seemingly lifted from a Charles Dickens novel,” a man who “disliked violence, tall people, and anyone with small ears.”

At his side were Colonel Hans Oster, the agency’s “traffic controller,” and Hans von Dohnanyi, a lawyer with one Jewish grandparent. Dohnanyi compiled a “Chronicle of Shame” detailing Nazi abuses and crimes, evidence that he grew frantic to hide and then destroy. Dunkel calls the chronicle “the sheet music of the Black Orchestra.”

These dissenters helped some Jews escape Germany and repeatedly tried to warn the Allies of Nazi invasion plans. In concert with an ever-changing array of military leaders, civil servants and others, they also plotted, abandoned and botched various coups.

With ‘White Knights,’ Tom Dunkel offers a suspenseful yet tragic story of heroism. Photo by Dale Willman

The earliest, planned for 1938 and 1939, would have derailed the Third Reich and averted the Holocaust. But the circumstances were never favorable, or so the generals concluded. After all, Germany’s victories in those years were swift, if not bloodless, and Hitler’s popular support remained strong. “Soldiers on those kinds of winning streaks aren’t inclined to stick their necks out and commit treason,” Dunkel writes.

An unrelated lone assassin — Georg Elser, a carpenter with Communist sympathies — tried to blow up Hitler in Munich in November 1939. Two Black Orchestra efforts to kill Hitler, in March 1943, also fizzled.

The German resistance is best known for its July 20, 1944, assassination attempt against Hitler and his henchmen at his Wolf’s Lair headquarters in East Prussia. With Germany headed for a catastrophic loss in the war, Operation Valkyrie was late and desperate, a last-chance marker laid down for history. At its center was Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, maimed in battle, who had to arm a bomb with only three fingers. (Could no one more suitable – and sufficiently brave — be found? Apparently not.)

The conspirators’ goals included overthrowing the Nazi government, installing a new regime, and negotiating for peace with the Allies, who would finally realize that the resistance was serious.

It was also unlucky. Stauffenberg left a bomb-containing briefcase in a conference room with Nazi leaders, then left — and another officer “inadvertently” moved the bomb. As a result, Hitler survived the blast and, unsurprisingly, vented his rage on the conspirators. Along with about 5,000 relatives, sympathizers and other unfortunates, they were hunted down, tortured, executed, or forced to commit suicide without any semblance of a fair trial.

One linchpin of Dunkel’s narrative is Dietrich Bonhoeffer, “a German theologian on a fast track” who helped found Germany’s anti-Nazi Confessing Church. As Dohnanyi’s brother-in-law and a distant cousin of Arvid Harnack, he had links to a wide variety of resisters. After Hitler’s 1933 assumption of power, the well-connected Bonhoeffer had opportunities to stay in the United States or England but kept returning home. In a bid to escape the military draft, he joined the Abwehr, traveling around Europe on behalf of the dissident cause.

The former German army’s supreme headquarters where key figures in the assassination plot against Hitler were executed. Photo by Getty Images

A 1943 raid on the Abwehr swept up Dohnanyi and Bonhoeffer, among others. In prison, the Protestant pastor produced voluminous writings, including poetry, plays and theological works, and exchanged letters with his young fiancee, Maria von Wedemeyer. That literary cornucopia enables Dunkel to tell Bonhoeffer’s story in vivid detail.

Another compelling character is Harald Poelchau, a prison chaplain who ministered to the condemned — and helped them communicate with loved ones, including other dissidents. It was a traumatic job, but also a mission of mercy. Poelchau’s sympathies and clandestine activities put him, too, at risk.

Dunkel’s epigraph is a quotation from Edmund Burke, an 18th-century Irish author and politician associated with British conservatism: “Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could only do a little.” Because the German resistance failed to stop Hitler; because many resisters died in the attempt; because they did, at best, only a little, the tremendous courage they displayed often has been overlooked. Dunkel’s book is a stirring corrective.

I hope you appreciated this article. Before you go, I’d like to ask you to please support the Forward’s award-winning, nonprofit journalism during this critical time.

Now more than ever, American Jews need independent news they can trust, with reporting driven by truth, not ideology. We serve you, not any ideological agenda.

At a time when other newsrooms are closing or cutting back, the Forward has removed its paywall and invested additional resources to report on the ground from Israel and around the U.S. on the impact of the war, rising antisemitism and the protests on college campuses.

Readers like you make it all possible. Support our work by becoming a Forward Member and connect with our journalism and your community.

Make a gift of any size and become a Forward member today. You’ll support our mission to tell the American Jewish story fully and fairly. 

— Rachel Fishman Feddersen, Publisher and CEO

Join our mission to tell the Jewish story fully and fairly.

Republish This Story

Please read before republishing

We’re happy to make this story available to republish for free, unless it originated with JTA, Haaretz or another publication (as indicated on the article) and as long as you follow our guidelines. You must credit the Forward, retain our pixel and preserve our canonical link in Google search.  See our full guidelines for more information, and this guide for detail about canonical URLs.

To republish, copy the HTML by clicking on the yellow button to the right; it includes our tracking pixel, all paragraph styles and hyperlinks, the author byline and credit to the Forward. It does not include images; to avoid copyright violations, you must add them manually, following our guidelines. Please email us at [email protected], subject line “republish,” with any questions or to let us know what stories you’re picking up.

We don't support Internet Explorer

Please use Chrome, Safari, Firefox, or Edge to view this site.