There are hundreds of statues and monuments in the United States and around the world to people who abetted or took part in the murder of Jews and other minorities during the Holocaust. The Forward has, for the first time, documented them in this collection of articles. For a guide to each country’s memorials click here.
Note: due to the overwhelming number of statues, plaques and street names for Nazi collaborators in Hungary, this section is only a partial listing.
Budapest — A bust of Hungarian despot and Hitler ally Miklós Horthy (1868–1957), which was moved into a prominent Budapest location in 2013. The move was condemned by Jewish groups and even the U.S. embassy. Horthy supported and enabled Nazi Germany’s project for the annihilation of his country’s Jews, passing antisemitic legislation similar to the infamous Nuremberg Laws.
In 1941, Hungary deported around 22,000 Jews to Ukraine, where they were killed by German and Ukrainian collaborators. In 1944, Hungary deported 437,402 Jews, mostly to Auschwitz, where the vast majority were exterminated. In total, 568,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered in the Holocaust. Above left, Jews being deported from Kőszeg, 1944.
Hungary’s Holocaust distortion has extended to manipulating museums and memorials to recast itself as a blameless victim of WWII. In 2012, Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel returned his Order of Merit, a Hungarian state award, to protest the whitewashing; in 2014, prominent Holocaust scholar Randolph L. Braham, another survivor, followed suit. Reports by the Associated Press, The New York Times.
Csókakő – Bust of Horthy erected 2012. The unveiling ceremony was accompanied by a far-right rally, a common occurrence which happened during debates over the Budapest bust as well. Coverage in Reuters. Hungary’s rehabilitation of Horthy has been condemned by the U.S. government as well as the World Jewish Congress and other Jewish organizations. Above left, Horthy and Hitler in 1938.
Kenderes and eight other towns — Hungary’s Horthy statues include a bust in Horthy Castle in Kenderes, above left; a statue in Kereki (erected in a square named after Horthy), above right; busts in Bodaszőlő, Harc, Hencida and Káloz; and a plaque in Reformed College in Debrecen. Horthy also has streets in Kunhegyes and Páty.
Below, members of the far-right Mi Hazánk (“Our Homeland Movement”) party commemorate the hundred-year anniversary of Horthy taking power in Budapest, March 1, 2020. Horthy, who enjoyed grand spectacle, had entered the city on a pristine white horse like the ones ridden by his modern sympathizers. Two weeks earlier, neo-Nazis from across Europe gathered in Budapest for the “Day of Honor,” an annual rally which uses WWII history to organize and inspire today’s neo-fascists.
Baja and numerous other towns — A bust of Albert Wass (1908–1998), Hungarian count, poet and antisemite who served in the Nazi-allied Hungarian army. Wass was awarded the Iron Cross, a Nazi Germany military honor. After the war, he immigrated to the U.S.
Despite being condemned as a Nazi collaborator by the Simon Wiesenthal Center and Hungary’s Jewish communities, Wass wasn’t deported due what the State Department claimed was lack of evidence. This is an all-too-common occurrence among Western governments, which allowed thousands of Nazi collaborators to enter their countries. See the introduction section for more on this.
Wass statues and plaques have been erected all over Hungary. A partial list includes ones in Harkány (below left), Aszód (below right), Balatonalmádi, Bonyhád, Budakeszi, several inBudapest (also here), Eger, Gödöllő, Hajdúnánás, Harc, Kalocsa, Kaposvár, Kapuvár, Kiskunfélegyháza, Mezo (detail here), Pécel, Pomáz, Sárospatak, Solymár, Sükösd, Szarvas, Százhalombatta, Szeged, Szendrő, Szentes, Szolnok, Taksony, Tapolca and Zalaegerszeg. His works have been introduced into school curricula as well. Reports in Deutsche Welle, Jerusalem Post.
For statues of Wass outside of Hungary, see the Romania section.
For more on Hungary’s numerous monuments to Hitler’s allies see György Lázár’s list of Horthy statues and monuments in the Hungarian Free Press, Failed Architecture for a good overview of Hungary’s battles of statues, and Defending History’s Hungary page.
Nazi collaborator monuments around the world
Lev Golinkin is the author of A Backpack, a Bear, and Eight Crates of Vodka, Amazon’s Debut of the Month, a Barnes & Noble’s Discover Great New Writers program selection, and winner of the Premio Salerno Libro d’Europa. Mr. Golinkin, a graduate of Boston College, came to the US as a child refugee from the eastern Ukrainian city of Kharkov (now called Kharkiv) in 1990. His writing on the Ukraine crisis, Russia, the far right, and immigrant and refugee identity has appeared in The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, CNN, NBC, The Boston Globe, Politico Europe, and Time.com, among others; he has been interviewed by MSNBC, NPR, ABC Radio, WSJ Live and HuffPost Live.