The Fracturing of American Jewry

In the Wake of Iran Deal, Leaders and Organizations Have Lost Clout

Old Guard?: Groups like Abraham Foxman’s ADL were not able to affect the outcome of nuclear talks.
Getty Images
Old Guard?: Groups like Abraham Foxman’s ADL were not able to affect the outcome of nuclear talks.

By Theodore Sasson

Published December 07, 2013, issue of December 13, 2013.
  • Print
  • Share Share

The interim deal recently signed with Iran that would freeze its nuclear program in exchange for limited sanctions relief is not only a blow to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. It also exposes the weakness of prominent American Jewish leaders and their organizations, which lobbied the U.S. Senate to act on new sanctions against Iran — to no avail.

The failure of AIPAC, the American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League to derail the deal puts into question the vaunted power of the Jewish establishment. It also reflects mounting disunity among Jewish organizations and polarization in the American Jewish community.

Even as the leaders of the big three advocacy organizations called for new sanctions, pro-Israel groups on the left, including J Street and Americans for Peace Now, declared their support for the Obama administration’s plan. In a letter to followers, J Street director Jeremy Ben-Ami singled out AIPAC and the American Jewish Committee for criticism: “Jewish community leaders who have spent years beating the war drums against Iran… will have to demonstrate that they actually do seek a diplomatic resolution to the crisis.”

It is quite clear that these left-leaning organizations are no longer obscure challengers to the Jewish establishment. J Street, which was formed in 2007 to galvanize the American Jewish left, gained prominence this year as Israel resumed peace talks with the Palestinians. In October, Vice President Joe Biden delivered the keynote at the group’s policy conference; a clutch of Israeli Knesset members, including two from the governing coalition, also attended the event.

The Obama administration’s Iran policy is the latest issue to expose the deep divide between these two wings of the Israel lobby. In September, AIPAC mobilized its membership to support President Obama’s abortive effort to secure congressional approval of an attack on Syrian government forces; J Street demurred. In recent years, these pro-Israel factions have staked out opposing positions on a wide range of issues, including the expansion of West Bank settlements, Chuck Hagel’s nomination as secretary of defense and the Gaza war.

The divisions reflect sharpening polarization in the American Jewish community. The Pew Research Center’s landmark survey, “A Portrait of Jewish Americans,” released this past October, finds that 44% of American Jews believe that Jewish settlements in the West Bank hurt Israel’s security, compared to 46% that believe settlements help or make no difference. Forty-eight percent doubt the Israeli government is making a sincere effort to achieve a peace agreement with the Palestinians, compared to 38% that trust the government’s sincerity. Fifty-two percent approve of President Obama’s handling of the Iranian nuclear issue, compared to 35% that disapprove (the survey was conducted prior to the recent round of negotiations).

But contrary to what many observers have claimed, the sharpening polarization of American Jews does not reflect diminished attachment to Israel. The same Pew study reported that 87% feel that caring about Israel is an important or essential part of being Jewish, and 69% feel emotionally attached to Israel — the same proportion reported in the last major population survey carried out in 2000-01. Travel to Israel has increased substantially, especially among Jewish young adults.

American Jewish donations to causes in Israel show the same high level of support. Roughly one-third of American Jews give directly to causes in Israel. In 2007, they gave more than $2 billion; the figure dropped in the recessionary years that followed but has begun climbing again.

But in the realm of philanthropy, as in the realm of political advocacy, coordination and unity have slipped. The United Jewish Appeal once exercised a near-monopoly on fundraising for Israel. Today, the successor campaigns of local Jewish federations handle only about 15% of American Jews’ donations to causes in Israel. The rest go directly to hundreds of Israeli nonprofit organizations operating in the fields of education, medicine, social welfare, arts and culture.

Many factors converged to shatter Jewish organizational unity in the political and philanthropic arenas. As Israel became polarized in the 1990s in response to the Oslo Peace Accords, politicians from rival political parties sought to rally their American Jewish supporters, a practice that has continued to the present. As the Israeli nonprofit sector grew, more organizations reached out directly to Diaspora Jewish donors. Increased travel and the digital revolution have brought American Jews into ever-greater contact with Israel, inspiring many to identify with particular charitable and political causes.

By supporting diverse political and philanthropic agendas, American Jews are expressing closer ties to Israel. They are also behaving like other contemporary diaspora groups that typically support competing homeland political parties and charities.

But the partisanship of American Jews comes at the price of political influence. As American Jews divide their support among rival and competing causes, their influence, in both Washington, D.C. and Israel will wane. The failure of the big establishment groups to stop the interim agreement with Iran — an agreement that Israel deemed dangerous — may be the first solid evidence of this new reality.

Theodore Sasson is author of the newly released book “The New American Zionism” (New York University Press). He is a professor of International and Global Studies at Middlebury College and a senior research scientist at the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University.


The Jewish Daily Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of importance to the Jewish community. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Jewish Daily Forwardrequires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not. While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and The Jewish Daily Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason.





Find us on Facebook!
  • Slate.com's Allison Benedikt wrote that Taglit-Birthright Israel is partly to blame for the death of American IDF volunteer Max Steinberg. This is why she's wrong:
  • Israeli soldiers want you to buy them socks. And snacks. And backpacks. And underwear. And pizza. So claim dozens of fundraising campaigns launched by American Jewish and Israeli charities since the start of the current wave of crisis and conflict in Israel and Gaza.
  • The sign reads: “Dogs are allowed in this establishment but Zionists are not under any circumstances.”
  • Is Twitter Israel's new worst enemy?
  • More than 50 former Israeli soldiers have refused to serve in the current ground operation in #Gaza.
  • "My wife and I are both half-Jewish. Both of us very much felt and feel American first and Jewish second. We are currently debating whether we should send our daughter to a Jewish pre-K and kindergarten program or to a public one. Pros? Give her a Jewish community and identity that she could build on throughout her life. Cons? Costs a lot of money; She will enter school with the idea that being Jewish makes her different somehow instead of something that you do after or in addition to regular school. Maybe a Shabbat sing-along would be enough?"
  • Undeterred by the conflict, 24 Jews participated in the first ever Jewish National Fund— JDate singles trip to Israel. Translation: Jews age 30 to 45 travelled to Israel to get it on in the sun, with a side of hummus.
  • "It pains and shocks me to say this, but here goes: My father was right all along. He always told me, as I spouted liberal talking points at the Shabbos table and challenged his hawkish views on Israel and the Palestinians to his unending chagrin, that I would one day change my tune." Have you had a similar experience?
  • "'What’s this, mommy?' she asked, while pulling at the purple sleeve to unwrap this mysterious little gift mom keeps hidden in the inside pocket of her bag. Oh boy, how do I answer?"
  • "I fear that we are witnessing the end of politics in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. I see no possibility for resolution right now. I look into the future and see only a void." What do you think?
  • Not a gazillionaire? Take the "poor door."
  • "We will do what we must to protect our people. We have that right. We are not less deserving of life and quiet than anyone else. No more apologies."
  • "Woody Allen should have quit while he was ahead." Ezra Glinter's review of "Magic in the Moonlight": http://jd.fo/f4Q1Q
  • Jon Stewart responds to his critics: “Look, obviously there are many strong opinions on this. But just merely mentioning Israel or questioning in any way the effectiveness or humanity of Israel’s policies is not the same thing as being pro-Hamas.”
  • "My bat mitzvah party took place in our living room. There were only a few Jewish kids there, and only one from my Sunday school class. She sat in the corner, wearing the right clothes, asking her mom when they could go." The latest in our Promised Lands series — what state should we visit next?
  • from-cache

Would you like to receive updates about new stories?




















We will not share your e-mail address or other personal information.

Already subscribed? Manage your subscription.